# Kernels for everyone!

This article is originally published at http://localhost:4000/

During my dissertation, I spent a lot of time working on spatial kernel estimates. Where spatial kernel estimates are defined as a convolution of a spatial suppport ,

*blur*in more common parlance. In the Guassian filter, is the normal density function , with the location parameter and scale parameter equal to the bandwidth .

The `kernelDensityEstimates`

package provides a means to apply these estimates to `raster`

S4 objects from the `NA`

values, and uses OpenMP for acceleration.
However, all processing is done in memory, so there is no support for extremely large images.

The rasterKernelEstimates R package is currently not on CRAN, but will be after the documentation is cleaned up. Furthermore, the implementation of the kernels is currently non-optimal, and a fair bit of work can be done to speed them up a bit more. For those interested in helping out, the code is on my github page.

A short example of each function is provided below with some basic performance metrics. All timings are done on a Late 2013 MacBook Pro 13" with a dual-core 2.4Ghz i5 running R 3.3.1 compiled under gcc 6.1.0.

## rasterLocalSums

The function `rasterLocalSums`

calculates a weighted sum of pixel values in a spatial neighborhood defined by the matrix `W`

,

`focal`

when fun is not specified.
In fact, the results are identical when padding is used in the `focal`

call.library(raster) library(rasterKernelEstimates) set.seed(100) n <- 500 # create a raster object r <- raster::raster( matrix(rnorm(n^2),n,n)) # create a weight matrix W <- raster::focalWeight(r,c(1,0.04),type='Gauss') # apply the weight with rasterKernelEstimates run.time <- proc.time() rLocalKDE1 <- rasterLocalSums(r,W) print(proc.time() - run.time)

## user system elapsed ## 0.975 0.004 0.325

# apply the weight with the raster packages focal run.time <- proc.time() rLocalKDE2 <- raster::focal(r,W,pad=TRUE) print(proc.time() - run.time)

## user system elapsed ## 0.667 0.008 0.678

# plot original image plot(r)

# plot the smoothed image plot(rLocalKDE1)

# print out the max abs difference print( sprintf( "The maximum absolute difference = %f.", max(abs(values(rLocalKDE1) - values(rLocalKDE2) ),na.rm = T)) )

## [1] "The maximum absolute difference = 0.000000."

## rasterLocalQuantiles

The function `rasterLocalQuantiles`

calculates the quantile of pixel values in a spatial neighborhood defined by the matrix `W`

;

This result should generally be reproducible using the raster library function `focal`

when fun is specified as `quantile`

.
Because quantiles do not necessarily fall exactly on order statistics there is a need to map quantiles between a function of the order statistics.
In the `rasterLocalQuantiles`

function this mapping is done to the closest odd-valued-index order statistic.
E.g. if the quantile falls between the first and second order statistic.
This approach matches the inverse empirical cdf transform used by the `type=1`

transform in the `stats::quantile`

function.
Note that the `quantile`

function applied to raster objects calculates the quantile from all pixels, not local quantiles.

As far as applications go, this function is particularly useful when working with data with a large number of outliers.

library(raster) library(rasterKernelEstimates) set.seed(100) n <- 100 # create a raster object with extreme values r <- raster::raster( matrix(rcauchy(n^2),n,n)) # create a weight matrix W <- matrix(1,nrow=3,ncol=3) # calculate local median run.time <- proc.time() rLocalKDE1 <- rasterLocalQuantiles(r,W,q=30) print(proc.time() - run.time)

## user system elapsed ## 0.018 0.001 0.010

# calculate local median run.time <- proc.time() rLocalKDE2 <- raster::focal( r, W, pad=TRUE, fun=function(x) stats::quantile(x,probs=0.3,na.rm=T,type=1), padValue=NA) print(proc.time() - run.time)

## user system elapsed ## 1.245 0.010 1.268

# plot boxplot of original image boxplot(r)

# plot the smoothed image plot(rLocalKDE1)

# print out the max abs difference print( sprintf( "The maximum absolute difference = %f.", max(abs(values(rLocalKDE1) - values(rLocalKDE2) ),na.rm = T)) )

## [1] "The maximum absolute difference = 0.000000."

## rasterLocalMoments

The function `rasterLocalMoments`

calculates up to the second moment over the weighted matricies `Wmu`

and `Wvar`

,

`rasterLocalSums`

is the normalization of the weights. This ensures the weights sum to one.library(raster) library(rasterKernelEstimates) set.seed(100) n <- 200 # create a raster object of two populations r <- raster::raster( cbind( matrix(rnorm(n^2),n,n), matrix(rnorm(n^2,2,2),n,n)) ) # create a weight matrix W <- raster::focalWeight(r,c(1,0.04),type='Gauss') # calculate the weighted local mean and variance run.time <- proc.time() rLocalKDE1 <- rasterLocalMoments(r,W) print(proc.time() - run.time)

## user system elapsed ## 0.343 0.002 0.102

# plot original image plot(r)

# plot the weighted mean plot(rLocalKDE1$mu)

# plot the weighted variance plot(rLocalKDE1$var)

## rasterLocalCategorical Modes

The function `rasterLocalCategoricalModes`

calculates a categorical mode from a raster image over the weighted spatial neighborhood devined by the matrix `W`

,

`r`

.library(raster) library(rasterKernelEstimates) set.seed(100) n <- 100 # create a categorical raster r <- raster::raster( matrix( sample(-4:4,size=n^2,replace=T),n,n) ) # create a weight matrix W <- matrix(1,9,9) # calculate the weighted local mean and variance run.time <- proc.time() rLocalKDE1 <- rasterLocalCategoricalModes(r,W) print(proc.time() - run.time)

## user system elapsed ## 0.030 0.000 0.011

# plot original image plot(r)

# plot the weighted mean plot(rLocalKDE1)

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